Polarization Measurement and Analysis
Luna’s advanced polarization measurement systems accurately measure and analyze all polarization related properties of light sources and optical materials.
Luna has a broad range of solutions to measure the instantaneous state of polarization (SOP) and the degree of polarization (DOP), polarization extinction ratio (PER), Wavelength-dependent insertion loss (IL), Wavelength-dependent polarization-dependent loss (PDL), Wavelength-dependent polarization mode dispersion (PMD), birefringence and many other parameters.
State of polarization and Poincare Sphere Representation
The state of polarization of light is an important parameter of optical signals because it affects how the optical beam behaves when interacting with an optical medium or an optical element. Luna’s in-line polarimeter splits the passing light into four different beams for measuring the Stokes vector components without interrupting the optical signal as shown below:
Any SOP can be represented as a point on a sphere with orientation angle Ψ and ellipticity angle χ as the spherical coordinates. This 3D representation of the state of polarization is referred to as Poincare Sphere representation. Luna’s polarimeter can display the real-time changes in polarization on Poincare sphere using PolaView as shown below:
Polarization Effects in Components and Networks
Various optical components and systems can be sensitive to the state of polarization of the optical signal. For example, a birefringent optical element may attenuate an optical signal differently depending on the incident angle formed with its principal state of polarization (PSP), causing polarization dependent loss (PDL). Moreover, such birefringent optical element may exhibit different refractive indices for different polarizations, causing polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in optical signals with two orthogonal principal polarization states.
In fiber-optic communication systems, the presence of PDL and PMD causes data distortion, pulse spreading, degradation in system performance, and ultimately service outage. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to precisely measure all polarization related parameters of optical components and systems to control these polarization impairments. Luna offers multiple solutions to measure PDL and PMD with high accuracy using different techniques.
Key Measurements for Optical Polarization Measurement
Luna solutions provide the advanced polarization related measurements for complete characterization of optical components and light signals, including:
- State of Polarization (SOP)
- Degree of Polarization (DOP)
- Insertion loss (IL)
- Polarization-dependent loss (PDL)
- Polarization mode dispersion (PMD)
- Evolution of polarization states
- Polarization extinction ratio (PER)
- Jones Matrix elements
- Muller Matrix elements
- What is Polarizaton?
- Application Note for PDL Measurement
- Complete Characterization of Polarization Maintaining Fibers Using Distributed Polarization Analysis
- High Accuracy Polarization Measurements Using Binary Polarization Rotators
- Distributed Polarization X-Talk Measurement for the Production of Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Coils