Fiber Optic Testing Publications and White Papers

“OFDR-Based Distributed Sensing and Fault Detection for Single- and Multi-Mode Avionics Fiber-Optics”

R. G. Duncan et al., “OFDR-Based Distributed Sensing and Fault Detection for Single-and Multi-Mode Avionics Fiber-Optics,” 10th Joint DOD/NASA/FAA Conf. Aging Aircraft, Palm Springs, CA, 2007, pp. 10-14.

We introduce an optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique and its applications in single- and multi-mode avionics fiber-optics. Multiple measurement examples within the avionics field not currently supported by conventional test tools or methods are provided, including high-resolution fault detection and distributed sensing along unaltered standard telecommunications grade optical fiber with millimeter spatial resolution.

 

“High-Resolution Fiber Reflectometry for Avionics Applications”

B. J. Soller et al., “High-Resolution Fiber Reflectometry for Avionics Applications,”  Avionics Fiber-Optics and Photonics,  IEEE Conf., Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp. 5657.

We introduce a tunable-laser-based technique for sub-millimeter resolution fiber reflectometry. We show how the technique is used to locate bends, breaks, bad splices and poor connections in short-haul single- and multimode fiber links.

 

“Millimeter Resolution Optical Reflectometry over up to Two Kilometers of Fiber Length”

D. K. Gifford et al., “Millimeter Resolution Otpical Reflectometry Over Up to Two Kilometers of Fiber Length,” Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics, IEEE Conf., Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 2007, pp. 52-53.

In this work, we demonstrate OFDR measurements over two kilometers of fiber length with millimeter level spatial resolution.  The data required for this measurement was acquired in less than 100 ms and results in a sensitivity of over 130 dB. This level of measurement performance enables unprecedented visibility into fiber-optic networks. In addition, we demonstrate distributed temperature sensing up to 800 C. We also show distributed strain measurements at a distance of 800 m with cm level spatial resolution.

 

“Millimeter Resolution Reflectometry Over Two Kilometers”

D. K. Gifford et al., “Millimeter Resolution Reflectometry Over Two Kilometers,”  33rd European Conf. and Exhibition Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, 2007, pp. 1-3.

Millimeter resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry measurements are achieved over 2 km of length. This level of spatial resolution over kilometer distances enables unprecedented link characterization in emerging short-haul applications such as avionics and FTTx.

 

“Characterizing the Birefringence of Polarization-Maintaining Fiber using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry“

M. E. Froggatt et al., “Characterizing the Birefringence of Polarization-Maintaining Fiber using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry,” 32nd European Conf. and Exhibition Optical Communications, Cannes, France, 2006, pp. 1-3.

Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is used to measure the group index difference and the refractive index difference (i.e. beat-length) between the fast and slow modes in polarization-maintaining (PM) optical fiber.

 

“Measurement of Localized Heating in Fiber Optic Components with Millimeter Spatial Resolution”

B. J. Soller et al., “Measurement of Localized Heating in Fiber Optic Components with Millimeter Spatial Resolution,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2006.

We present a novel, Rayleigh backscatter based method for ultra-high resolution distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing. This technique is applied to in-situ temperature monitoring for high-power amplifier module applications where the component itself is the sensor.

 

“Interferometric Measurement of Dispersion in Optical Components”

M. E. Froggatt et al., “Interferometric Measurement of Dispersion in Optical Components,”  Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 252-253.

Interferometric measurements provide a direct measurement of optical phase. In light of this fundamentally different measurement, the specification and evaluation of optical components is discussed. A dispersion compensation device is presented as an example.

 

“Correlation and Keying of Rayleigh Scatter for Loss and Temperature Sensing in Parallel Optical Networks”

M. E. Froggatt et al., “Correlation and Keying of Rayleigh Scatter for Loss and Temperature Sensing in Parallel Optical Networks,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2004.

We develop a method by which coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) can be used to “key” portions of optical fiber by measuring their complex Rayleigh backscatter signatures.  We show that these complex keys can be used to locate specific fiber lengths embedded within a parallel optical network, and that they can further be used to interrogate any induced loss or temperature change in the identified portion of the network.

 

“Polarization resolved measurement of Rayleigh backscatter in fiber-optic components”

B. J. Soller et al., “Polarization Resolved Measurement of Rayleigh Backscatter in Fiber-Optic Components.” Optical Fiber Communication Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, 2005.

In this paper, we introduce a method for fiber-optic testing and troubleshooting at the assembly level that is based on using OFDR to measure the distributed Rayleigh backscatter along the length of the fiber-optic network.

 

“Impulse response compression for vector characterization of highly dispersive devices”

E. D. Moore et al., “Impulse Response Compression for Vector Characterization of Highly Dispersive Devices,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2004, Vol. 2, pp. 3.

The technique of impulse response compression is described, which allows coherent interferometric Jones matrix measurements of highly dispersive devices.

 

“Polarization Echoes Based on Scatter De-correlation in Polarization Maintaining Fiber”

D. K. Gifford et al.,  “Polarization Echoes Based on Scatter De-correlation in Polarization Maintaining Fiber,” National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

High-resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry is used to observe fading of the polarization beat signature of PM fiber.  Through dispersion management, a beat echo is observed at a later point in a fiber under test.

 

“Return Loss Measurement in the Presence of Variable Insertion Loss Using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry”

S. Kreger et al., “Return Loss Measurement in the Presence of Variable Insertion Loss Using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry,”  NIST SPECIAL PUBLICATION SP, 2006, 1055, 18.

The high spatial resolution and high sensitivity inherent to optical frequency domain reflectometery enables precise measurements of distributed insertion loss and return loss events.  The ability to compensate return loss for variable insertion loss greatly adds to the accuracy and practicality of measurements.  Further, the capability of measuring the Rayleigh backscatter internal to the instrument provides a stable power calibration artifact.

 

“Second Order PMD in Optical Components”
Soller, B. J. (2005). Second-Order PMD in Optical Components. White Paper, Luna Technologies, 2020.

Introduction to measuring second order polarization mode dispersion in optical components (SOPMD).

 

“Optical vector network analyzer for single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion”
Gifford, D. K., Soller, B. J., Wolfe, M. S., & Froggatt, M. E. (2005). Optical vector network analyzer for single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion. Applied optics, 44(34), 7282-7286.

Overview of method and theory behind the optical vector network analyzer’s ability to complete single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion

 

“Characterization of Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Using High Sensitivity Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry” 

M. E. Froggatt et al., “Characterization of Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Using High-Sensitivity Optical-Frequency-Domain Feflectometry,”  Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4149-4154, Nov. 2006.

A paper by Luna staff that was published by the Journal of Lightwave Technology, November 2006.