Characterizing Passive Optical Components and Assemblies:

Luna’s Optical Vector Analyzer™ (OVA) enables complete characterization of passive optical components with industry-leading accuracy and speed. The OVA measures the linear transfer function of an optical component or assembly with a single scan of a tunable laser. From this single measurement the OVA characterizes the IL, GD, CD, PMD, Phase Ripple and more. In addition, the OVA offers a unique Time Domain view of the device under test, enabling troubleshooting of the device as well as time-domain filtering of the data for more accurate measurements.

Characterizing Optical Properties of Planar Waveguides:

Planar optical waveguide technologies are the key elements in the modern, high speed optical network. Recent, broad deployment of optical and hybrid optoelectronic chips and planar light circuits (PLCs) has been driven by the cost, size and operational benefits that these architectures offer. Luna Optical Vector Analyzers offer distinct measurement advantages that make characterizing the optical properties of planar waveguides, optical chips and planar light circuits easy.

Finding Fiber Faults in High Speed Optical Networks:

Testing of fiber optic components, accessories and networks is becoming critical in today’s demanding applications. Luna’s Optical Backscatter Reflectometer™ (OBR) is a fiber optic diagnostic tool that locates and troubleshoots splices, breaks, connectors and more in fiber assemblies with industry-leading spatial resolution, sensitivity and accuracy. The OBR can also transform standard telecom-grade fiber into a distributed strain and temperature sensor with an additional software option.

Avionics:

Luna’s Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique is a practical tool for diagnosing and troubleshooting the types of fiber networks found in aviation electronics applications. Short length optical communications networks, like those in avionics and aerospace applications, require frequent health assessment. Precise recognition and localization of faults, accurate measurement of loss through the link are critical to maintaining signal integrity. The unique attributes of Luna’s technology include zero dead-zone, the ability to unambiguously identify different types of failure modes encountered in short-haul single- and multimode fiber networks, and the capability to perform distributed sensing with unaltered single- or multimode telecommunication grade optical fiber. With Luna’s technology one can detect and localize bends, breaks, bad splices and poor connections with up to 10 micron spatial resolution with zero dead-zone. Links can be measured with 1 mm resolution over up to 2000 m of fiber length. In addition to fault location and loss measurement, distributed temperature and strain measurements along standard optical fiber can occur, which saves time and money.

Security:

A communications infrastructure secure from threats of intrusion and espionage is a key element in the overall outlook of network security. Monitoring a fiber optic network presents a particularly difficult monitoring challenge due to the fact that fiber tapping methods can be made to be nearly undetectable. Methods of intrusion detection that involve either monitoring or conditioning the data stream work to protect a link in the presence of an intrusion event but do not provide information about the location or nature of the intrusion. Luna researchers found that using fiber fingerprints, you can monitor the network in situ for the types of changes associated with modern, hard-to-detect optical taps. This technique is not only capable of real-time monitoring of whether or not a fiber network has been breached by a difficult-to-detect source, it is also capable of determining the location and nature of the breach point in the network. For more details, see Luna publication “Luna Researchers Harness the Power of Fiber Fingerprints.”

 

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“Computing Insertion Loss when Transitioning Through Dissimilar Fiber”

Luna’s Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) is ideally suited for measuring Insertion Loss (IL) and Return Loss (RL) in optical networks with extremely high spatial resolution.This engineering note details how to properly compute insertion loss by measuring the relative difference in scatter levels.

 

“Using a Circulator to Make Insertion Loss Measurements in Transmission with the Optical Backscatter Reflectometer”

Luna’s Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) is well suited for making localized Insertion Loss (IL) measurements in reflection using the differences in fiber Rayleigh scatter amplitude on either side of a loss event. This engineering note details how the use of a circulator can allow the user to measure the total IL of their Device Under Test (DUT) in transmission.

 

“Using the OBR with Multi-Mode Fiber”

This engineering note details two methods of coupling light from single mode fiber to multi-mode fiber to produce stable and repeatable Insertion Loss (IL) and Return Loss (RL) measurements.  This note also discusses the differences between IL and RL results for the two mode launch conditions and details the consequences for OBR spatial resolution so that the user may choose the launch method which best suits their application.

 

“Choosing a Mode Conditioner for Use with the Optical Backscatter Reflectometer in Diagnosing Multi-Mode Fiber”

Luna’s Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) is ideally suited for troubleshooting both single mode and multi-mode optical networks. This engineering note details the advantages and disadvantages of three methods of mode conditioning: 1) direct launch method 2) full equilibrium mode launch 3) partial mode launch.

 

“Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating Measurements”

This engineering note outlines the capabilities of the Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) 4600 in characterizing a chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Data taken with the OBR instrument on a chirped FBG are presented and several competing technologies are mentioned.

 

“Calculating Group Delay and Chromatic Dispersion from OVA Optical Phase”

In the following note, the OVA calculations for GD and CD are presented, along with a straightforward way for the user to calculate these parameters, starting from the OVA optical phase measurement, with a user-defined optical frequency derivative step size.  Example measurements are included that illustrate these calculations and practical considerations.

 

“Calculating chromatic dispersion (CD) for fiber measurements using the OVA”

This engineering note details the steps taken to accurately compute chromatic dispersion from fiber measurements taken using Luna’s Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA).

 

Phase Ripple Measurements with the Optical Vector Analyzer”

Luna’s Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) now has the ability to make phase error measurements. This engineering note discusses the “Phase Ripple Linear” and “Phase Ripple Quadratic” options that are now available with OVA software version 3.8 or later.

 

Using the Optical Vector Analyzer for Component Evaluation in a Production Environment”

Luna’s Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) fully analyzes the optical properties of fiber optic components, modules, and subsystems, providing comprehensive characterization based on a complete transfer function measurement. This engineering note details how to use the OVA to characterize components in a production line setting.

 

“Test Summary: Spool Skew and Strain Measurements with OBR”

A series of tests were performed by Luna to demonstrate the capability of the Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) as a tool for optical fiber spool characterization. This engineering note discusses skew and strain measurement results from these tests.

 

“OBR Skew and Strain”

Luna’s Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) has the ability to make long distance length measurements of up to 2 kilometers.  This engineering note gives users step by step guidance on using the OBR to obtain skew and strain measurements.

 

“Time Domain Phase Derivative and Time Domain Wavelength Calculations”

In the following note, the time domain phase derivative and time domain wavelength calculations are detailed.